Irving's politically pious persona in The Chronicle of the Conquest of Granada (1829), "Fray Agapida," indicts Irving's own exemplification of the postcolonial American literary sanctification of discovery, conquest, and colonization presented in The Life and Voyages of Columbus (1828). Through his satire of Agapida, Irving undermines the nationalistic and religious grounds upon which both the Conquest of Granada was most often justified and his biography of Columbus was commissioned to further. Irving links the reconquest of Moorish Granada, Columbus's voyages, the Inquisition, and the Crusades to Irving's satire of contemporary acts of literary, mercantile, and political imperialism in A History of New York. Instead of being a writer absorbed in his own romantic fantasies, in The Chronicle Irving attacks the casuistic use of religion, nobility, and enlightenment to sanctify conquest and usurpation. The conflict indicated by Irving's satire of self- and nation-fashioning reflects many of the United State's own struggles to establish a postcolonial identity.
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